This type of AR, also known as recognition-based AR or image recognition, relies on identification of markers/user-defined images to function. Marker-based AR requires a marker to activate an augmentation. Markers are distinct patterns that cameras can easily recognize and process, and are visually independent of the environment around them; they can be paper-based or physical objects that exist in the real world.
Maker-based AR works by scanning a marker which triggers an augmented experience (whether an object, text, video or animation) to appear on the device. It usually requires software in the form of an app, which enables users to scan markers from their device using its camera feed.
Examples of Marker-based AR include:
Marker-less AR offers the most control to the user as it allows the user to choose where they would like to place the content. It also allows real-life scale placement of the virtual augmented objects. These AR experiences are highly reliant on smart phone features such as sensors, camera, and processors. Marker-less AR can be split into:
Due to the availability of smartphone features that provide location detection, location-based AR ties augmentation to a specific place and works by reading data from a device’s camera, GPS, digital compass, and accelerometer while predicting where the user is focusing as a trigger to pair dynamic location with points of interest in order to provide relevant data or information. Information and virtual objects are mapped on specific locations then displayed when a user’s device data matches the location.
The reliability of marker-less AR on positional information gathered from a device’s camera, GPS, digital compass, and accelerometer makes it more adaptable than marker-based AR as it does not need an image or object cue to deploy.
Examples of Location-based AR include:
Projection AR, sometimes also referred to as spatial AR, is a method of delivering digital information within a stationary context. It focuses on rendering virtual objects within or on a user’s physical space. It is one of the simplest forms of AR where light is projected onto a surface. The interaction occurs by touching the projected surface physically.
In projection AR the user is not limited to any device as virtual objects are integrated directly into the environment; users and target objects are also able to move around the environment within a specified zone, in which both the fixed projector and supporting camera for tracking are placed. Projection-based AR methods may be used to create illusions about depth, position, and orientation of an object.
Examples of projection-based AR include:
Superimposition AR involves either partial or full replacement of an original view of an object with an augmented view of the same object. In this type of AR, object recognition plays a vital role because an app cannot replace an original object with an augmented one if it cannot identify the original object. This type of AR has been popularized by social platforms such as Instagram, Facebook, and Instagram using filters.
Examples of Superimposition-based AR include:
These experiences are characterized by non-mainstream apps built by developers to solve problems in their daily lives or their clients. The content is usually custom, having user-defined interaction points. It involves using AR libraries and existing technology to achieve different kinds of visualizations and interactions.
Examples of user-defined marker-less AR include: